Salvation for all?

Originally posted on 1 June 2008 and updated on 18 March 2010

One of the growing dividing lines between “emerging church” and “traditional” evangelicals is their views on hell, eternal life/damnation and the doctrines that link to this (including original sin, God’s hatred of sinful humanity, what Christ’s death accomplished, atonement and so on). In other words, this is core doctrine stuff and worthy of full consideration.

Yet, most people’s vision of hell has more to do with Dante than the Bible. They take little account of the many different Biblical words that are all translated “hell” in our English Bibles. They take little account of the historical and cultural backdrop to the Biblical references. But, probably most significantly, they just don’t take account of the Bible itself.

I am certainly not going to attempt to deconstruct or construct a theology of hell here. Maybe some time in the future. You can certainly do some reading yourself (see some of the comments below), and especially the Wikipedia entry and http://www.tentmaker.org/

What I would like to do is just list some verses that raise some very real questions for me. Ever since my first formal studies of Biblical intepretation, the dangers of proof texting have been drummed into me. The danger is that you take a single verse (often, a single phrase from a single verse) without looking at the context. And then you make it say whatever you want it to say.


The contexts (for there are many) include the immediate literary context, the historical and cultural contexts, the context of the whole Bible, and the context of God’s self-revelation.

I don’t yet know what to do with these verses, but since there are so many of them, they must be considered in the debate. I don’t think the Bible teaches universalism. But, then, doesn’t God get what He wants in the end – and doesn’t He want everyone to be saved? And wouldn’t that be universalism?

And, besides, because there are so many, these can’t just be written off as proof texting. You read them. You decide.

Matthew 20:1-16
1 “For the kingdom of heaven is like a landowner who went out early in the morning to hire men to work in his vineyard.
2 He agreed to pay them a denarius for the day and sent them into his vineyard.
3 “About the third hour he went out and saw others standing in the marketplace doing nothing.
4 He told them, ‘You also go and work in my vineyard, and I will pay you whatever is right.’
5 So they went. “He went out again about the sixth hour and the ninth hour and did the same thing.
6 About the eleventh hour he went out and found still others standing around. He asked them, ‘Why have you been standing here all day long doing nothing?’
7 “‘Because no one has hired us,’ they answered. “He said to them, ‘You also go and work in my vineyard.’
8 “When evening came, the owner of the vineyard said to his foreman, ‘Call the workers and pay them their wages, beginning with the last ones hired and going on to the first.’
9 “The workers who were hired about the eleventh hour came and each received a denarius.
10 So when those came who were hired first, they expected to receive more. But each one of them also received a denarius.
11 When they received it, they began to grumble against the landowner.
12 ‘These men who were hired last worked only one hour,’ they said, ‘and you have made them equal to us who have borne the burden of the work and the heat of the day.’
13 “But he answered one of them, ‘Friend, I am not being unfair to you. Didn’t you agree to work for a denarius?
14 Take your pay and go. I want to give the man who was hired last the same as I gave you.
15 Don’t I have the right to do what I want with my own money? Or are you envious because I am generous?’
16 “So the last will be first, and the first will be last.”

John 3:16-17
16 “For God so loved THE WORLD that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.
17 For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but TO SAVE THE WORLD through him.

John 10:14-16
14 “I am the good shepherd; I know my sheep and my sheep know me–
15 just as the Father knows me and I know the Father– and I lay down my life for the sheep.
16 I have other sheep that are not of this sheep pen. I must bring them also. They too will listen to my voice, and there shall be one flock and one shepherd.

John 12:32
32 But I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw ALL MEN to myself.”

Acts 3:19-21
19 Repent, then, and turn to God, so that your sins may be wiped out, that times of refreshing may come from the Lord,
20 and that he may send the Christ, who has been appointed for you– even Jesus.
21 He must remain in heaven until the time comes for God to restore EVERYTHING, as he promised long ago through his holy prophets.

Romans 5:12-21
12 Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all men, because all sinned–
13 for before the law was given, sin was in the world. But sin is not taken into account when there is no law.
14 Nevertheless, death reigned from the time of Adam to the time of Moses, even over those who did not sin by breaking a command, as did Adam, who was a pattern of the one to come.
15 But the gift is not like the trespass. For if the many died by the trespass of the one man, how much more did God’s grace and the gift that came by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, overflow to the many!
16 Again, the gift of God is not like the result of the one man’s sin: The judgment followed one sin and brought condemnation, but the gift followed many trespasses and brought justification.
17 For if, by the trespass of the one man, death reigned through that one man, how much more will those who receive God’s abundant provision of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man, Jesus Christ.
18 Consequently, just as the result of one trespass was condemnation for all men, so also the result of one act of righteousness was justification that brings life FOR ALL MEN.
19 For just as through the disobedience of the one man the many were made sinners, so also through the obedience of the one man the many will be made righteous.
20 The law was added so that the trespass might increase. But where sin increased, grace increased all the more,
21 so that, just as sin reigned in death, so also grace might reign through righteousness to bring eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Romans 11:26-32
26 And so ALL ISRAEL WILL BE SAVED, as it is written: “The deliverer will come from Zion; he will turn godlessness away from Jacob.
27 And this is my covenant with them when I take away their sins.”
28 As far as the gospel is concerned, they are enemies on your account; but as far as election is concerned, they are loved on account of the patriarchs,
29 for GOD’S GIFTS AND HIS CALL ARE IRREVOCABLE.
30 Just as you who were at one time disobedient to God have now received mercy as a result of their disobedience,
31 so they too have now become disobedient in order that they too may now receive mercy as a result of God’s mercy to you.
32 For God has bound ALL MEN over to disobedience so that he may have mercy ON THEM ALL.

1 Cor 15:20-26
20 But Christ has indeed been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep.
21 For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead comes also through a man.
22 For as in Adam all die, so in Christ ALL WILL BE MADE ALIVE.
23 But each in his own turn: Christ, the firstfruits; then, when he comes, those who belong to him.
24 Then the end will come, when he hands over the kingdom to God the Father after he has destroyed all dominion, authority and power.
25 For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet.
26 The last enemy to be destroyed is death.

2 Cor 5:18-19
18 All this is from God, who reconciled us to himself through Christ and gave us the ministry of reconciliation:
19 that God was reconciling THE WORLD to himself in Christ, NOT COUNTING MEN’S SINS AGAINST THEM. And he has committed to us the message of reconciliation.

Phil 2:9-11
9 Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name that is above every name,
10 that at the name of Jesus EVERY knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth,
11 and EVERY tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Eph 1:9-10
9 And he made known to us the mystery of his will according to his good pleasure, which he purposed in Christ,
10 to be put into effect when the times will have reached their fulfillment– to bring ALL THINGS in heaven and on earth together under one head, even Christ.

Col 1:16-23
16 For by him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things were created by him and for him.
17 He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.
18 And he is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning and the firstborn from among the dead, so that in everything he might have the supremacy.
19 For God was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him,
20 and through him to reconcile to himself ALL THINGS, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross.
21 Once you were alienated from God and were enemies in your minds because of your evil behavior.
22 But now he has reconciled you by Christ’s physical body through death to present you holy in his sight, without blemish and free from accusation–
23 if you continue in your faith, established and firm, not moved from the hope held out in the gospel. This is the gospel that you heard and that has been proclaimed to EVERY creature under heaven, and of which I, Paul, have become a servant.

1 Tim 2:3-6
3 This is good, and pleases God our Savior,
4 who wants ALL MEN to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth.
5 For there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus,
6 who gave himself as a ransom for ALL MEN — the testimony given in its proper time.

1 Tim 4:9-10
9 This is a trustworthy saying that deserves full acceptance
10 (and for this we labor and strive), that we have put our hope in the living God, who is the Savior of ALL MEN, AND ESPECIALLY OF THOSE WHO BELIEVE.

Titus 2:11
11 For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to ALL MEN.

Hebrews 2:9-10
9 But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, now crowned with glory and honor because he suffered death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death FOR EVERYONE.
10 In bringing many sons to glory, it was fitting that God, for whom and through whom everything exists, should make the author of their salvation perfect through suffering.

2 Pet 3:9
9 The Lord is not slow in keeping his promise, as some understand slowness. He is patient with you, NOT WANTING ANYONE TO PERISH, but EVERYONE to come to repentance.

I John 2:2
2 He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not only for ours but ALSO FOR THE SINS OF THE WHOLE WORLD.

Psalm 145:9-10
“The LORD is good to all; he has compassion on all he has made. / All you have made will praise you, O LORD.”

And, then, have a look at this list of the Early Church Fathers’ quotes on this issue. It will make your eyes water.

16 thoughts on “Salvation for all?”

  1. Nic Paton responded this post:

    Hi Graeme
    It is startling, (especially coming from an evangelical background which upholds the teaching of Endless Punative Separation without questioning), to see how widely used the word ALL is in the New Testament.

    When I started my investigation of this thorny issue, I put the 10 most convincing texts in support of Universal Restoration next to the 10 most convincing texts for the doctrine of hell. I then graded them and there were I think 2 that gave the universalist position the hardest time. But with some hard study I came to see that these texts were nowhere as definatively supportive of hell as most of christendom thinks.

    My investigation is here: http://soundandsilence.wordpress.com/2007/02/21/universal-restoration/

    Have you seen http://www.tentmaker.org/

  2. Ryan Peter:

    Tentmaker is a great site. I recommend anyone to really go read it and give it some major and serious thought.

    Like Nic, when I did some study into the Scriptures on hell I also came to very different conclusions. One thing I did was read as much as I could of the Bible (OT) as well to see what I could pick up from hell.

    It took me something like 2 years to have the guts to just accept what the Bible was saying over the traditional view of hell.

    If anything, endless torture etc. seemed to me (and of course still does) to be the LEAST supported; both Biblically and relationally with the Spirit. Annihiliationism and/or Universal Restoration have the most support. I tend to subscribe to a bit of an inbetweeny of the two – but don’t tell anyone 🙂

    In fact, an ‘inbetweeny’ may be where the first concept of purgatory came from (but, that is a doctrine that was eventually mis-used.)

    I really love this topic.

    If you’ve got really lots and lots and lots of time, you can read debates on this topic at theologyweb :

    http://www.theologyweb.com/campus/showthread.php?t=100626

    Debates at that forum are always interesting and give new perspectives on pretty much everything!

  3. Tim Victor added:

    Graeme,

    I don’t believe the Scriptures support the notion of “heaven and hell” as usually described. Back in 1994 I really got stuck into the biblical texts and imagery and simply couldn’t reconcile them with the “end times” mentality of the Christians I knew then nor with the “rapture” or with the idea that “when we die we’re off to heaven or hell”.

    That said, I don’t believe the Scriptures support Universal Restoration.

    Rather I take the Revelation text as primary here as it pulls together the theme of salvation and judgement “death and angels and those not in the lambs book of life are thrown into the lake of fire” and then there’s a New Creation.

  4. Craig du Toit added:

    Graeme

    I’ve been studying this controversial yet important topic for a year or so.

    My turning point came when I made a study of the Greek words pronounced “aion” and “aionios”, and their Hebrew equivalents in the Old Testament. It seems most Christian Universalists stress the importance of the translation of these words, from which we get “eternal life” and “eternal punishment” in most English Bibles.

    Briefly, it is my understanding that when Christ spoke of “eonian life” (as per the Concordant Literal New Testament rendering), what He meant to a large extent, and what His Jewish audience understood by the term, was “entrance to and enjoyment of the promised kingdom in the coming eon”. This was the eagerly awaited “eon of the eons” promised in Daniel 7:18. In a few passages, Jesus is even recorded as having used the terms “eonian life / eternal life” and “the kingdom” interchangeably (such as Matthew 19:16 to 23).

    It seems that the Lake of Fire will be the means by which God will finally put an end to the old creation, for those who will experience it.

    But for Paul’s words in 1 Corinthians 15:22 and 23 to come into effect, the Lake of Fire cannot be the end for them. All will be made alive, but each in his own rank.

    As a last enemy, death is being abolished, removed from office. If there is no more death, what else can there be, but life?

    It seems quite clear to me, though I stand to be corrected (by the scriptures), that God will win the adoration of every created being, by the consummation of His plan for the ages.

    What I cherish most, I think, about this outlook, is the overwhelmingly wonderful insight it gives us into the nature of the character of God.

  5. Hey everyone,

    Sorry that I have been slow to respond to your excellent comments. What I am thrilled to see (and I hope all critics notice) is that all of you so far have indicated how much hard effort you put into going back to the Bible and looking at your preconceived ideas about what it is saying.

    This is the key, I believe, to taking Christianity forward. Actually going back to the Bible and not just superimposing a particular belief set onto it, but asking “what did God really say”?

  6. Why do you neglect to mention Matthew 7:13-14 “Enter through the narrow gate. For wide is the gate and broad is the road that leads to destruction, and many enter through it. 14 But small is the gate and narrow the road that leads to life, and only a few find it.” OR Matthew 25:31-46 (not all quoted here but v41 says) “Then He will also say to those on the left hand, ‘Depart from Me, you cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels”?

    I think that you misinterpret the meaning of “ALL” in your quoted scriptures. In my completely uneducated opinion it does not mean “everyone” will be “saved” just before the end of the old world and creation of the new one, but simply that salvation is offered not only to the Jew but also to the Gentile.

  7. Alfred, there are indeed verses in the Bible that talk about the need to respond to God’s message, and that there will be consequences for those who reject Jesus. Those verses are clear and numerous. My point is that JUST as clear and JUST as numerous are the verses that talk about salvation being for everyone (not just offered to everyone, but actually applicable to everyone).

    You cannot argue away the logic that Paul uses in Romans 5, culminating in verse 18: “Consequently, just as the result of one trespass was condemnation for all men, so also the result of one act of righteousness was justification that brings life for all men.” You cannot hold that Adam’s sin ensured that we’re all sinners (original sin doctrine) without also conceding that we all be saved. So, if we’re not all saved by Jesus’ death and resurrection, then we can’t all be sinners because of Adam. You can’t have that one both ways.

    And I am not sure how you can get around 1 Timothy 4:10. That seems pretty clear to me, even on the “simple” face value reading of the Bible.

    But here’s my question for you, Alfred: why do conservative Christians want to do as much as they can to ensure that people understand that the majority of humanity is going to be kept out of heaven (in their view)? Why can we not glory and marvel in the gracious love of God? And why do conservative Christians not think that the cross of Christ is more powerful than anything in history – powerful enough to save everyone? It makes little sense to me…

    Now to repeat: I am not a universalist. I don’t believe that everyone will be saved. I do believe that God loves us so much that He gives us the choice to choose or reject His love. I believe that those who reject God’s love will be removed from His presence forever. However, I do NOT believe that everyone who dies without hearing about God’s love automatically are denied entry to heaven. I do NOT believe that just because someone tells you about Jesus that you can be deemed to have “heard” the Gospel, understand the full implications and that’s your chance to make a decision that has eternal consequences. Many people get a distorted view of Jesus – like everyone who heard about Jesus while feeling the pointy bit of a Crusader’s sword unpleasantly slicing them open (just for example).

    I choose to believe in a God who’s love will out-extravagant anything we can possibly imagine.

  8. Now, Alfred, to be specific about your quotations from the Bible. Let’s start with Matthew 7 and the narrow gate.

    Firstly, did you read Matthew 7:1, the immediate context for this verse: ““Do not judge, or you too will be judged. For in the same way you judge others, you will be judged, and with the measure you use, it will be measured to you.” Too many conservative Christians want to judge who gets into heaven and who does not. Please, Alfred, be VERY careful, for your soul’s sake!!

    There are two ways to respond to your referencing Matthew 7. The first is to ask you to read on – to verses 21 onwards. Here Jesus explains who will get into heaven (who is it that makes it through the “narrow gate”). Most conservative Christians would say it’s those who BELIEVE certain truths, or who have professed Jesus as their Saviour. Well, Jesus didn’t say that: “Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven.” It has to do with your works, with the things you DO. Not the things you believe. This is backed up pretty much by the whole book of James. So, this will throw up a few surprises as to who gets in and who doesn’t.

    But a better response might be this: The wide gate leads to “destruction”. This word implies that people will be annihilated. This doesn’t seem to gel with the other pictures of hell conservative Christians want to build (conscious, eternal torment). Why is the wide gate one that leads to “destruction”? Maybe it is because this passage is not about an eternal destiny at all, but rather about the experience of our lives on earth. After all, when Jesus talks of eternal life, he always meant something that starts in the present anyway (better translated “Life of the ages”). So maybe this narrow gate and wide gate is about the ways in which we can choose to live our lives, not the paths that lead to some eternal destiny? That would actually make a lot more sense of the context.

    All I am trying to say is that maybe Jesus chose to speak in figurative language for a reason. It’s because these issues are complex, without simple solutions and interpretations. We need to look at the WHOLE of Scripture and when we do, we cannot ignore the verses I quoted above.

  9. The danger of your type of thinking here is that it minimizes Jesus’s greatest commandment to us, which is to go out into the world and tell all nations of what He has done, to spread the Good News, not to sit back and say “oh well, God will give this person a chance in heaven anyway so I don’t need to tell them about His Son and His sacrifice and eternal forgiveness now or encourage them to repent before they die.”

    No sensitive Christian would in any event try and force a decision or repentance out of anyone and certainly not tell them they have only this one opportunity to accept and say the sinner’s prayer or else it’s “off to Hell with you…”. Every Christian knows it is an on-going process to be “saved” and besides, scripture is also very clear that no-one receives and believes the message unless the truth is revealed to them by God’s Holy Spirit (who Jesus says has been sent to help us here on earth and not only when we get to heaven)

    I am still convinced that you are confusing SALVATION OF ALL with SALVATION FOR ALL and your very first scripture from Mathew 20 is NOT a very good example since all that happens there is “during a day” i.e. during the players life time, not after.

    I agree with you fully that Jesus spoke in simple terms so that we can all understand; so what does it help to publish articles like these that further complicate the issues? I think we must be very careful of not falling into the trap Paul speaks about in his letter to the Corinthians Chapter 1 vs 18-23
    “For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. 19 For it is written: ‘I will destroy the wisdom of the wise; the intelligence of the intelligent I will frustrate.’ 20 Where is the wise person? Where is the teacher of the law? Where is the philosopher of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of the world? 21 For since in the wisdom of God the world through its wisdom did not know him, God was pleased through the foolishness of what was preached to save those who believe. 22 JEWS DEMAND SIGNS AND GREEKS LOOK FOR WISDOM, 23 BUT WE PREACH CHRIST CRUCIFIED: A STUMBLING BLOCK TO JEWS AND FOOLISHNESS TO GENTILES

  10. Alfred, I definitely did not say that Jesus spoke in simple terms. In fact, precisely the opposite. There are numerous verses showing that His message was a lot more complex than it appeared, that people did not understand it, and that some people could never understand it. We’re told he spoke in parables and stories only. There must be a reason for this! Part of the reason at least is that the message of the Gospel is more complex and profound than our language can express, and God’s goals for history are much higher and bigger than we can imagine (literally).

    You also said that if there is no hell, then Christians would have no incentive to become missionaries. This is a stunning misunderstanding of the real message of the Gospel, and one I have covered in detail elsewhere on this blog (see especially http://www.futurechurchnow.com/2010/03/29/what-we-are-saved-from-and-what-we-are-saved-for-sermon-podcast/ and http://www.futurechurchnow.com/2010/02/25/the-transformational-gospel-vs-the-evacuation-gospel/). And this, Alfred, is PRECISELY the point I am trying to make. For most conservative Christians, their primary and main reason for being a Christian is being scared of hell. This makes them quite nasty people, actually. Tough thing to say, but I think it’s generally true. They’re not loving (yes, they say “love the sinner, hate the sin” type of stuff, but really they’re just ‘grossed out’ by the world and don’t love it all), they don’t mind seeing the planet messed up (because they believe that this will “force” Jesus to come back sooner), and they have a refugee mindset. This causes them to join churches that are more like showcases for saints or clubhouses.

    The real reason to take the Good News to all nations is that God is love, God is for you, and there is salvation in no-one else. That salvation is not about being rescued from this horrid earth, but about finding a new life that starts right now – a life of the ages, an eternal life. But the focus is on the difference this can make right now; and the call to action is to start acting like a child of the King into who’s family you have been adopted.

    Finally, Alfred, please stop cherry picking your verses from the Bible – proof texting is not useful. If you keep reading 1 Corinthians on into chapter 2, you’ll get to verse 6: “We do, however, speak a message of wisdom among the mature, but not the wisdom of this age or of the rulers of this age, who are coming to nothing. No, we declare God’s wisdom, a mystery that has been hidden and that God destined for our glory before time began…. However, as it is written: “What no eye has seen, what no ear has heard, and what no human mind has conceived” — the things God has prepared for those who love him– these are the things God has revealed to us by his Spirit. The Spirit searches all things, even the deep things of God. … What we have received is not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, so that we may understand what God has freely given us. This is what we speak, not in words taught us by human wisdom but in words taught by the Spirit, explaining spiritual realities with Spirit-taught words….” (there’s more there, but I’ll let you read on).

  11. I have another theological question that I think ought to be asked in relation to this topic. I too am not a universalist, Jesus is the only way to eternal life (both here and hereafter, eternal not only and precisely with regards to time, but precisely and more so to do with quality).

    In any case, a question I have been pondering on the topic of salvation is regarding the degree of ‘correct theology ‘ that one ought to have in order to be saved.

    It sounds strange to ask but it is something that to me seems more and more pressing as I realise that no one truly has correct theology. Perhaps the desire or quest for true theology is more of what we may refer to as dogmatic religion as opposed to ‘relationship’ as we so often claim separates Christians from other religions.

    It would appear to me that evangelical thinking attempted to systematise salvation for the sake of developing a clear sales pitch. The concept of being ‘ born again ‘ is something God does, not what we do via saying the sinners prayer. And once again to receive eternal (quality) life, inherit the kingdom of heaven. It is so much more than everlasting life or death.

    In any case what Scripture does teach is that Jesus is the way. So what does that Look like? If all of your theology is flawed, yet you know and love Jesus as best as you can understand him are you offered the opportunity for eternal (quality) life?

    So can someone be led to faith in Jesus as their saviour by the work of the Holy Spirit while reading the Quraan? (because he is taught to be the one who will save even in Islamic teaching ). Can that person continue to read the Quraan , continue to consider themselves to be Islamic yet know Jesus personally and have ‘salvation’.

    Does knowing someone personally mean knowing everything about them or can you know them closely without knowing every detail?

    I am not by any means trying to imply that any other faith can lead to salvation (universalism) but perhaps that having only one core facet of theology correct (Jesus) while the rest is wrong may actually just be enough ?

    Obviously when one loves another we want to learn more about them, but surely if we have not yet gotten to that place our love can still be true.

    1 Corinthians 13:12 NIV

    For now we see only a reflection as in a mirror; then we shall see face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known.

    To what degree do we have to know to have salvation?

  12. Peter, I think that the Bible is clear that we are saved by Jesus. Not by the Bible, not by knowledge, not by theology, but by Jesus. Acknowledging him as Saviour is all we need. What we do or don’t understand about that or any other theology doesn’t make a difference to salvation. It makes a difference to our experience of course, and is not unimportant, but it is not the defining factor for salvation.

  13. I find it interesting that what was presented to me years ago in 1974 was to choose a life with God in heaven. Many times I have heard that the choice is between heaven and hell. But if you don’t choose heaven you will go to hell. Hell was not prepared for us but for the fallen angels!

  14. Thanks for the comment, Heather. Can you let us know what Biblical basis you have for this view? And, what that Biblical basis says hell actually is?

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